Previous Chapter Index | Next Page | Next Chapter

Spreadsheet Calculations

Spreadsheet programs starting with Visicalc(tm) provide a convenient tool for visualizing changes in equations and parameter values. The spreadsheet program, Excel(tm) is available for a number of platforms including the Macintosh(tm) and Windows(tm) operating systems.

A new spreadsheet document provides a sheet of cells. The user can enter either numbers, labels, or functions into each cell. Cells are designated by letter and number. For example, Cell 'A1' in the top left corner contains the text 'Chapter II'. Cells A8:A16 contain the numbers 0 through 8. Cell B8 could be completed by entering the formula '=($B$3/$B$5)*EXP(-$B$4*A8)' which calculates Cp at time = 0.

Cells with formulas can be copied (down for example) and thus values for Cp at other times can be quickly calculated. Notice the use of '$' to designate absolute cell references. When copied down these references stay the same and refer to the same cell, e.g. B3 = Dose. The reference A8 however is relative and changes for each cell to refer to the relative time in the 'A' column.

Once the formulas are entered changes to parameter values will be quickly reflected by new values in the appropriate cells.

Top-left of an Excel(tm) Spreadsheet
Figure II-7 Example Exceltm Spreadsheet

A simple spreadsheet illustrating these and other spreadsheet facilities can be downloaded. (With your browser set in the Helper section with .XL of type application/excel this file will open in Excel(tm) ( ;-) maybe))

Excel(tm) will be used to illustrate a number of calculations. Each "cell" of the spreadsheet may contain a number or a formula. Changes in the numbers are quickly reflected in calculation cells.

This page was last modified: 12 February 2001

Copyright 2001 David W.A. Bourne

Previous Chapter Index | Next Page | Next Chapter