Systemic effect - general anesthesia
Rapid absorption, by-passing the liver
Absorption of gases is relatively efficient, however solids and liquids are excluded if larger than 20 micron and even then only 10 % of the dose may be absorbed. Cromolyn is taken as a powder with 50 % of the particles within the range of 2 to 6 micron. Larger than 20 micron and the particles impact in the mouth and throat. Smaller than 0.5 micron and they aren't retained.
Systemic effect - e.g., nitroglycerin ointment.
Absorption through the skin, especially via cuts and abrasions but also intact, can be quite marked. This can be a real problem in handling toxic materials in the laboratory or pharmacy.
Copyright 2001 David W.A. Bourne