Chapter 7

Routes of Drug Administration

return to the Course index
previous | next

Routes of Drug Administration

Student Objectives for this Chapter

After completing the material in this chapter each student should:-

One method of classifying routes of administration is ENTERAL and PARENTERAL. Enteral means to do with the GI tract and includes oral, buccal, and rectal. Parenteral means not through the alimentary canal and commonly refers to injections such as IV, IM, and SC; but could also include topical and inhalation. We can also distinguish IV from the rest, as with all others at least one membrane must be crossed, thus an absorption process is involved in the administration and the pharmacokinetic model.

Table 7.1.1 Market and Share of Pharmaceuticals by ROA
Data from Viswanathan, 2004

ROA Market Value Market Share
Oral $24.1B 32 %
Pulmonary $20.0B 27 %
Nasal $8.2B 11 %
Injection/Implants $6.6B 9 %
Transdermal/Dermal $5.7B 8 %
Transmucousal $0.4B 0 %
Other ROA or Devices $10.0B 13 %


return to the Course index
previous | next

This page was last modified: Tuesday, 7th Apr 2020 at 5:47 pm

Privacy Statement - 25 May 2018

iBook and pdf versions of this material and other PK material is available

Copyright © 2001-2022 David W. A. Bourne (