Chapter 4

One Compartment IV Bolus

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Integrated Equations

The differential equations developed on the previous page provide concise descriptions of the rate of change of drug concentration (dCp/dt) or the elimination rate (dX/dt). However, they can be difficult to use when trying to determine kel or CL. Measuring the tangent of the Cp versus time plot can not be determined accurately. Later in the Chapter dealing with the Analysis of Urine Data we will describe measuring the rate of excretion directly from the data. However, integrated forms of Equation 4.5.1 (Eqn 4.4.1) are generally more useful.

Laplace transforms or other methods can be used to integrate Equation 4.5.1.

dCp/dt <i>versus</i> Cp

Equation 4.5.1 Rate of Change of Concentration versus Concentration

to give

Cp <i>versus</i> time

Equation 4.5.2 Integrated Equation for Cp versus Time

This equation describes the single exponential decline in drug concentration as a function of time. This fall in plasma concentration is called mono-exponential decay. If we know kel and Cp0 we could calculate Cp at any time after a single IV bolus dose. However, it still isn't very convenient for estimating a value of kel from concentration versus time data. We could use a non linear regression program such as Boomer however for estimation purposes using graph paper we would prefer a straight line equation. A straight line equation can be achieved by taking the natural logarithm of both side of Equation 4.5.2

Ln(Cp) <i>versus</i> time

Equation 4.5.3 Ln(Cp) versus Time

This integrated (logarithmic) form of the equation for Cp represents a straight line equation, that is an equation of the form: y = a - m • t with a = intercept and m = slope.

Plotting ln(Cp) versus t should give a straight line with a slope of - kel and an intercept of ln(Cp0).

Plot of ln(Cp) <i>versus</i> time

Figure 4.5.1 Linear plot of ln(Cp) versus time

Click on the figure to view the interactive graph

NOTICE, there are no UNITS for ln(Cp) in Figure 4.5.1. There are units of hour for time (X axis) so the slope has units of time-1 e.g. min-1, hr-1.

Now we can measure kel by determining Cp versus time and plotting ln(Cp) versus time.

Alternately we could use semi-log graph paper. As mentioned earlier the scale on the y-axis are proportional to the log of the number, not the number itself. This plot allows us to calculate the slope and thus kel given Cp versus time data.

Plot of ln(Cp) <i>versus</i> time

Figure 4.5.2. Semi-log plot of Cp versus time

Click on the figure to view the interactive graph

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